Academic Work

I study collective action in online communities and seek to understand why some attempts at collaborative production — like Wikipedia and Linux — build large volunteer communities while the vast majority never attract even a second contributor. I am particularly interested in how the design of communication and information technologies shape fundamental social outcomes with broad theoretical and practical implications — like the decision to join a community or contribute to a public good. My research is deeply interdisciplinary, consists primarily of "big data" quantitative analyses, and lies at the intersection of communication, human-computer interaction, and sociology.

I am an Assistant Professor in the University of Washington Department of Communication and an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Human-Centered Design and Engineering. At UW, I am also Affiliate Faculty in the Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences, the eScience Institute, and the "Design Use Build" (DUB) group that supports research on on human computer interaction. I am also a Faculty Affiliate at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University and an affiliate of the Institute of Quantitative Social Science at Harvard.

I received my PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in an interdepartmental program involving the MIT Sloan School of Management and the MIT Media Lab. My dissertation research was advised by Eric von Hippel, Yochai Benkler, Tom Malone and Mitch Resnick.

Working Papers

These papers are in various stages of preparation, review, and revision. Please do not cite or quote these papers without my permission. Contact me for copies of any papers that are listed here but are not linked directly from this page.

  • Hill, Benjamin Mako. Almost Wikipedia: What eight early online collaborative encyclopedia projects reveal about the mechanisms of collective action. [PDF] [Abstract & Video]
  • (Press: Neiman Journalism Lab, Washington Post)
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako. Causal effects of a reputation-based incentive in an peer production community.

Refereed Articles

  • Narayan, Sneha, Orlowitz, Jake, Morgan, Jonathan, Hill, Benjamin Mako, & Shaw, Aaaron. (2017). The Wikipedia Adventure: Field Evaluation of an Interactive Tutorial for New Users. In Proceedings of the 20th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing. ACM Press. [Preprint PDF]
  • Kiene, Charles, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2016). “Surviving an `Eternal September': How an Online Community Managed a Surge of Newcomers.” In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1152–1156). ACM Press. [Official Link (Open Access)] [Preprint PDF]
  • Matias, J. Nathan, Sayamindu Dasgupta, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2016). “Skill Progression in Scratch Revisited.” In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1486–1490). ACM Press. [Official Link (Open Access)] [Preprint PDF]
  • Dasgupta, Sayamindu, William Hale, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2016) “Remixing as a Pathway to Computational Thinking.“ In Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2016). ACM Press. [Official Link (Open Access)] [Preprint PDF] (Awards: CSCW '16 Honorable Mention Award)
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako, Aaron Shaw. (2015) “Page Protection: Another Missing Dimension of Wikipedia Research.” In Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym 2015). ACM Press. [PDF (Open Access)] [Official Link] [Data/Software Online Supplement]
  • Huang, Shih-Wen, Minhyang (Mia) Suh, Benjamin Mako Hill, Gary Hsieh. (2015) “How Activists are Both Born and Made: An Analysis of Users on Change.org.” In Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2015). ACM Press. [Preprint PDF] [Official Link (Pay-walled)] [30-second Video "Advertisement" (YouTube)]
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako, Aaron Shaw. (2014) “Consider the Redirect: A Missing Dimension of Wikipedia Research.” In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym 2014). ACM Press, 2014. [PDF (Open Access)] [Official Link (Open Access)] [Data/Software Online Supplement]
  • Zhang, Haoqi, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Aaron Shaw, Sean A. Munson, Elizabeth Gerber, Benjamin Mako Hill, Peter Kinnaird, Shelly D. Farnham, Patrick Minder. (2014) "WeDo: End-To-End Computer Supported Collective Action." In Proceedings of the Eighth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM 2014). AAAI Press. (Short Paper & Poster) [PDF] [Official Link (Pay-walled)]
  • Shaw, Aaron, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2014) “Laboratories of Oligarchy? How the Iron Law Extends to Peer Production: Laboratories of Oligarchy.” Journal of Communication 64, no. 2 (April 2014): 215–38. doi:10.1111/jcom.12082. [Official Link (Pay-walled)] [Preprint/Draft PDF]
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako, Aaron Shaw. (2013) "The Wikipedia gender gap revisited: Characterizing survey response bias in peer production communities." PLOS ONE, 8-6 (June 26, 2013): doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065782. [Official Link (Open Access)]
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako, Andrés Monroy-Hernández. (2013) "The remixing dilemma: the trade-off between generativity and originality." American Behavioral Scientist. 57-5, Pp. 643—663. DOI: 10.1177/0002764212469359. [Official Link (Pay-walled)] [Preprint/Draft PDF] (Press: Financial Times, Wired UK, Boing Boing)
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako, Andrés Monroy-Hernández. (2013) "The cost of collaboration for code and art: Evidence from a remixing community." In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2013). San Antonio, Texas, USA: ACM. [Official Link (Pay-walled)] [Preprint PDF] (Awards: CSCW 2013 Best Paper Award)
  • Monroy-Hernández, Andrés, Benjamin Mako Hill, Jasmine González-Rivero, danah boyd. (2011). "Computers can't give credit: How automatic attribution falls short in an online remixing community." In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2011). [Official Link (Pay-walled)] [Preprint HTML, Preprint PDF] (Awards: CHI '11 Honorable Mention Award)
  • Buechley, Leah, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2010). "LilyPad in the Wild: How Hardwareʼs Long Tail is Supporting New Engineering and Design Communities." In Proceedings of the Conference on Design of Interactive Systems (DIS). Aarhus, Denmark. [PDF] (Press: Etiquette, Women 2.0 )
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako Hill, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Kristina Olson. (2010) “Responses to remixing on a social media sharing website.” Pp. 74-81 in Proceedings of the 4th AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM). Washington, D.C.: AAAI. [PDF] [Official Link (Paywalled)]
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2007) “Revealing Errors.” Media/Culture Journal 10 (Feature Article). [Official Link (Web)]
  • Coleman, Gabriella, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2004) “How free became open and everything else under the sun.” Media/Culture Journal 7 (Feature Article). [Official Link (Web)]
  • Michlmayr, Martin, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2003) “Quality and the reliance on individuals in free software projects.” Pp. 105–109 in Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Open Source Software Engineering (WOSSE). [PDF]

Other Scholarly Publications

  • Hill, Benjamin Mako., Dailey, Dharma, Guy, Richard T., Lewis, Ben, Matsuzaki, Mika, & Morgan, Jonathan T. (Planned 2017). Democratizing Data Science: The Community Data Science Workshops and Classes. In N. Jullien, S. A. Matei, & S. P. Goggins (Eds.), Big Data Factories: Scientific Collaborative approaches for virtual community data collection, repurposing, recombining, and dissemination. New York, New York: Springer Nature. [Preprint/Draft PDF]
  • [Workshop Position Paper] Dasgupta, Sayamindu and Benjamin Mako Hill. (2016) ”Learning With Data: Designing for Community Introspection and Exploration.” Developing a Research Agenda for Human-Centered Data Science. ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2016). San Francisco, California. ACM Press. [PDF]
  • [Section Introduction; Section Co-Editor] Benjamin Mako Hill and Seth Schoen. (2015) “Free Culture: Introduction.” In. The Boy Who Could Change The World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz. The New Press. [HTML] (Press: Truthout)
  • [Book Chapter] Benkler, Yochai, Aaron Shaw, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2015) "Peer Production: A Form of Collective Intelligence." In Handbook of Collective Intelligence, edited by Thomas Malone and Michael Bernstein. MIT Press. [PDF]
  • [Invited Article] Shaw, Aaron, Haoqi Zhang, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Sean Munson, Benjamin Mako Hill, Elizabeth Gerber, Peter Kinnaird, Patrick Minder. (2014) "Computer Supported Collective Action." Interactions 21, no. 2 74–77. IEEE. [Final PDF] [Official Link]
  • [Book Chapter] Buechley, Leah, Jennifer Jacobs, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2013) "Lilypad in the Wild: Technology DIY, E-Textiles, and Gender." In Textile Messages: Dispatches from the World of E-Textiles and Education edited by Leah Buechley, Kylie Peppler, Michael Eisenberg, and Yasmin Kafai. Peter Lang. (Based, in part, on the 2010 article.) [Publishers Page] [PDF (Scans)]
  • [Book Chapter]. Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2012). "Freedom for Users, Not For Software." in Wealth of the Commons: Another World Is Possible Beyond Market and State edited by Silke Helfrich and David Bollier, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung. Published in German as Commons: Für eine neue Politik Jenseits von Markt und Staat. [HTML]
  • [Book Chapter] Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2010). "Revealing Errors" in Error: Glitch, Noise, and Jam in New Media Cultures edited by Mark Nunes. Continuum. (An expanded version of the 2007 journal article.)
  • [Interactive Poster] Monroy-Hernández, Andrés, Benjamin Mako Hill. (2010). Cooperation and Attribution in an Online Community of Young Creators. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '10) [Abstract PDF]
  • [Book review] Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2008). "Samir Chopra, Scott D. Dexter, Decoding Liberation: The Promise of Free and Open Source Software." Minds and Machines 18:297-299. [PDF]
  • [Review] Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2005). “Reflections on free software past and future.” First Monday 10. [Official Link (Web)]
  • [Book Chapter] Coleman, Gabriella, Benjamin Mako Hill. 2004. “The Social Production of Ethics in Debian and Free Software Communities: Anthropological Lessons for Vocational Ethics.” in Free/Open Source Software Development, edited by Stefan Koch. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, Pennsylvania. [Page Scans, Book Info]

Theses

  • 2013. [Ph.D. Dissertation] Hill, Benjamin Mako. “Essays on volunteer mobilization in peer production.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Interdepartmental Program in Management and Media Arts and Sciences. Advised by Eric von Hippel, Yochai Benkler, Tom Malone and Mitch Resnick Published as papers: (1) "Almost Wikipedia"; (2) "The Remixing Dilemma"; "Laboratories of Oligrachy" all available on this page. Recipient of Dordick Award for Best Dissertation from the Communication and Technology Division of the International Communication Association.
  • [S.M. Thesis] Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2007). “Cooperation in Parallel: A Tool for Supporting Collaborative Writing in Diverged Documents.” Masters Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Media Arts and Sciences. Advised by Walter Bender, Chris Csikszentmihályi, and Gabriella Coleman. [PDF]
  • [B.A. Thesis] Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2003). “Literary Collaboration and Control A Socio-Historic, Technological and Legal Analysis.” Undergraduate Thesis, Hampshire College. Advised by James Miller, James Wald, and David Bollier. [web link]

Paper Presentations

Although all conference proceedings listed above were also presented, I have not include them again here. Additionally, this section only includes information on my academic presentations. I give many presentations to non-academic audiences. These are listed on my talks page.

  • Studying Populations of Online Organizations.
    • Communication Science in the Digital Age. Workshop. International Communication Association annual meeting (ICA 2015), San Juan, Puerto Rico. June 7, 2015.
  • “Accounting” for Transaction Costs in Online Collective Action.
    • ANN-SONIC-NICO 7th International Workshop on Network Theory: Peer Production Networks. Evanston, Illinois. October 30, 2015.
    • Wikia Inc., San Francisco, California. August 18, 2015.
    • Wikimania 2015. Mexico City, Mexico. July 18, 2015.
  • Access Without Empowerement
    • Workshop on Privacy, Surveillance, and Activism. Erasmus Research Centre for Media, Communication and Culture, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. March 24, 2015.
    • Wikimania 2014. London, UK. August 9, 2014.
    • Note: I have also given several non-academic presentations of this work.
  • Laboratories of oligarchy? How the iron law extends to peer production.
    • ZEW/KMRC Workshop: User behavior and content generation on Wikipedia. November 9, 2013.
    • MIT Economic Sociology Working Group. May 8, 2013
    • Harvard Cooperation Group, Berkman Center, Harvard University. April 16, 2013
    • Center for Information Technology Policy, Priceton University. April 11, 2013
    • Online Collective Action Working Group. European Council on Political Research Join Sessions. Mainz, Germany. March 13, 2013.
  • Status, Social Signalling and Collective Action in a Peer Production Community.
    • American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado. August 17, 2012.
    • Laboratory for Social Research Seminar, University of California Berkeley. October 28, 2011.
    • Open and User Innovation Workshop, Vienna, Austria. June 5, 2011
    • MIT Economic Sociology Working Group. May 18, 2011
  • Almost Wikipedia: What eight early online collaborative encyclopedia projects reveal about the mechanisms of collective action.
    • Microsoft Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. August 13, 2012.
    • Wikimania 2012, George Washington University, Washington, DC. July 14, 2012.
    • Wikimedia Foundation, San Francisco, California. November 2, 2011.
    • Conference on Digital Commons, Barcelona, Spain [Remote Video Presentation] October 29, 2011.
    • Luncheon Series, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. October 11, 2011. [Abstract & Presentation Video]
    • MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. May 20, 2011
    • MIT Sloan Seminar on Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy. November 22, 2010.
    • MIT Economic Sociology Working Group. November 17, 2010.
  • Is volunteer labor a ``fixed and finite'' resource? Evidence from peer production. MIT Economic Sociology Working Group, Cambridge, Massachusetts. April 24, 2012.
  • Causal Effects of a Reputation-Based Incentive in an Peer Production Community.
    • MIT Open and User Innovation Workshop. Cambridge,Massachusetts. August 2, 2010.
    • MIT Economic Sociology Working Group, Cambridge, Massachusetts. June 9, 2010.
    • Harvard Cooperation Group, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts. April 26, 2010.
  • Revealing Errors.

Lectures and Panels

  • [Talk and Discussion] “Missing Voices on Wikipedia.” With Monika Sengul-Jones. Center on Communication, Difference, and Equity, University of Washington. April 22, 2015.
  • [Talk] “Volunteer Mobilization in Peer Production.” Department of Computer Science, University of California Santa Barbara. April 16, 2015.
  • [Talk] “Volunteer Mobilization in Peer Production.” University of Milan, Milan, Italy. March 28, 2015.
  • [Talk and Q&A] Discussion of The Internet’s Own Boy. Workshop on Privacy, Surveillance, and Activism, Erasmus Research Centre for Media, Communication and Culture, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. March 24, 2015.
  • [Talk and Q&A] Discussion of The Internet’s Own Boy. Information & Society Center, Information School, University of Washington. November 24, 2014.
  • [Panel] Discussion of The Internet’s Own Boy. Information & Society Center, Information School, University of Washington. November 24, 2014.
  • [Talk] “Understanding Collaborative Creativity in Scratch.” Center for Data Science, University of Washington, Tacoma. November 19, 2014.
  • [Workshop and Talk] I co-organized, hosted, and spoke at Open Source Comes to Campus. University of Washington. November 16, 2014
  • [Talk] “Creativity Without Law in Remixing.” Conference on Creativity Without Law. Case Western University School of Law. November 7, 2014.
  • [Talk] “Volunteer Mobilization in Peer Production.” Medialab, Sciences Po, Paris, France. June 25, 2014.
  • [Talk] “Remixing Research and Scratch Data.” Scratch Data Summit, MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts. With Andrés Monroy-Hernández. March 21, 2014.
  • [Talk] “Volunteer Mobilization in Peer Production.” DUB Seminar, University of Washington. January 8, 2014.
  • [Talk] “Failures of Collective Action.” Cognitive Science Colloquium, Hampshire College, Amherst, Massachusetts. April 10, 2013.
  • [Talk] “Failures of Collective Action.” Department of Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. October 26, 2012.
  • [Talk] “Failures of Collective Action.” The Future of Security: Ethical Hacking, Big Data, and the Crowd. Parsons Institute for Information Mapping, The New School. New York, New York. October 24, 2012.
  • [Keynote] “When peer production works: Learning from failures, to improve collaboration.” Wikipedia Academy 2012, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany. June 29, 2012.
  • [Research Stream Overview] “Can can social awards create better wikis?” (With Aaron Shaw) Wikimania 2012, George Washington University, Washington, DC. July 12, 2012.
  • [Refereed Panel (Co-organizer)] “Reviewing and challenging socio-political approaches in the analysis of open collaboration and collective action online.” With Mayo Fuster Morell. WikiSym 2010. Gdansk, Poland. July 10, 2010. [PDF]
  • [Talk] “The State of FLOSS Research”. University of Massachusetts Department of Computer Science in Amherst, Massachusetts. November 20, 2009.
  • [Panel] “Renaissance Panel: The Roles of Creative Synthesis in Innovation”. CHI 2008 in Florence, Italy. April 7, 2008. [Abstract | Video]
  • [Panel] “Cloud Computing and Free and Open Source Software”. Computing in the Cloud Workshop at the Center for Information Technology Policy at Princeton University in Princeton, NJ. January 22, 2008.
  • [Reponse] “Reflections on Decoding Liberation”. Book Launch Event for Decoding Liberation at Brooklyn College. November 15, 2007.
  • [Talk] “Parallel Document Development”. Open and User Innovation Conference at Copenhagen Business School in Copenhagen, Denmark. June 27, 2007.
  • [Panel] “Reflections on the War on Share” Media in Transition 5 (MiT5) at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts. April 27, 2007.
  • [Keynote] “Defining Moments”. Conference on Engaging in Open Source (CEOS) at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. June 2, 2006.

Invited Workshops

This section includes invitation or application-only workshops. When I give a lecture or present a paper, I will not list it again here.

Grants

  • National Science Foundation Grant (DRL-1417663) for “New Pathways into Data Science: Extending the Scratch Programming Language to Enable Youth to Analyze and Visualize Their Own Learning.” Collaborative Proposal with Mitch Resnick and Natalie Rusk. 2014-09-01 through 2016-08-31 (expected). (Total: $433,262; UW: $124,374) [Official Link] [Project Description (PDF)] [Award to Collaborating Institution (MIT)]
  • “Educational Research Grant” Award from Amazon. ($7,500) 2010–2011.
  • “Digital Incubator” grant from Cisco and MTV for work on election technology. ($25,000; 1 of 2 semi-finalists for $100,000) [Link to funded project: Selectricity]

Other

  • Interdepartmental Degree Proposal (PDF): At MIT, I'm enrolled in an interdepartmental PhD program that involves faculty from both the MIT Sloan School of Management and the MIT Media Lab. The proposal lists the faculty and requirements of my program and lays out the justification, very broadly, of what my degree is about. I wrote this proposal with members of the MIT faculty and had it approved by both departments and the Dean of Graduate Students. The program is overseen by Professors Eric von Hippel, Tom Malone, and Mitch Resnick.
  • General Exams: As part of my PhD program, I had to organize and take a series of examinations that tested my knowledged in three academic areas: (1) technological innovation, entrepreneurship, and strategy with an added emphasis on the study of open and user innovation, (2) organizational and economic sociology and (3) technology design for cooperation, community, and creativity. I created a page for these that includes the proposal, reading list, link to notes, and links to the exam questions and my answers. The generals committee included Eric von Hippel, Jason Davis, and Mitch Resnick
  • Open and User Innovation Conference: I coordinated the program, handled communication, and acted as master of ceremonies for, both the 8th Annual Open and User Innovation conference held at MIT Sloan School of Management on August 2-4, 2010 and the 10th Annual conference held at Harvard Business School. Each conference had 150+ talks and 7 parallel tracks with presentations from researchers from North America, Asia, and Europe.
  • AcaWiki: AcaWiki is a wiki that hosts summaries of academic articles and books. I have written several hundred summaries of scholarly articles and books which I've shared on the site. When time permits, I try to continue summaries of articles that I read in my course of my research.
  • If you like the layout of my curriculum vitæ, thanks go to Kieran Healy for the typographical inspiration. If you'd like to use it yourself, you can help yourself to the LaTeX source code.